As soon as once more, tax season is upon us. Now could be the time to take a protracted, onerous have a look at the finest tax tool techniques, and there are masses to be had, too. It’s most commonly a question of opting for the person who will paintings excellent in keeping with your tax scenario and, in fact, your price range. We’ve get a hold of a listing of 15 of the finest tax tool techniques to be had, evaluated in keeping with functions, charge, ease-of-use, and different components. And in keeping with analysis by means of the Just right Monetary Cents workforce, we’ve decided that two obviously stick out from the group – TurboTax and H&R Block – however particularly TurboTax.
The Best possible Tax Device of 2022
We’ve decided on 15 tool techniques that constitute probably the most often used within the box, and rank them consistent with the factors indexed close to the top of this information. We closely choose the ones on the peak – this is, the highest 5. The tax tool box has gotten crowded in recent times, and whilst each and every would possibly fill a selected area of interest, just a small handful will attraction to numerous taxpayers.
This is our complete checklist of the finest 15 tax tool corporations of 2022. Click on via for detailed evaluations of each and every corporate.
- H&R Block
- Liberty Tax
- Credit score Karma Tax
- Jackson Hewitt
- eSmart Tax
- Group Tax
- DIY Tax
Opinions of The Best possible Tax Device Corporations
1. TurboTax – Best possible All-Round
TurboTax takes the prize for the finest all-around tax-preparation tool on our checklist. That’s now not sudden, for the reason that it’s the most well liked within the business.
Why it made the checklist: TurboTax is amazingly user-friendly. Despite the fact that you recognize not anything in any respect about making ready revenue taxes, the step by step, query/reply layout calls for handiest that you just input knowledge when brought about. The tool will care for the entirety from there. They’ll do an research that takes handiest seconds that may warn you if there are any mistakes. If now not, it’ll transfer you ahead within the procedure, right through finishing touch and submitting. Any other merit is that they provide 4 other ranges, starting from the loose submitting plan for the most simple returns to their Self-employed model. You’ll be able to additionally upload TurboTax Reside to each and every plan, which gives you get admission to to both a CPA or an enrolled agent for the finishing touch of your go back. On the other hand, a TurboTax specialist is to be had any time you wish to have further assist.
What holds it again: If TurboTax has a “weak point”, it’s worth. As a top rate tool program, it received’t be your first selection in case you’re on the lookout for a low cost tax-preparation choice.
TurboTax Pricing Plans:
- Loose Version: $0 for federal and state
- Deluxe: $40, plus $40 according to state
- Premier: $70, plus $40 according to state
- Self-employed: $90, plus $40 according to state
- TurboTax Reside Elementary (for easy returns): $50, plus $40 according to state
- TurboTax Reside Deluxe: $90, plus $50 according to state
- TurboTax Reside Premier: $140, plus $50 according to state
- TurboTax Reside Self-employed: $170, plus $50 according to state
In case you’re taking a look to economize on the price of tool, and you’ve got a slightly easy go back, you will have to examine different choices in this checklist. TurboTax is de facto extra suited to these with extra difficult tax scenarios.
2. H&R Block – Best possible for Shifting Your Go back to Reside Preparation
H&R Block is more than likely the best-known of all tax-preparation organizations. And even though its tax-preparation tool is first-rate, it’s excellent identified for its extraordinarily massive community of tax preparers. Throughout the tax season, the corporate employs about 70,000 advisors in 10,000 places of work all the way through the rustic. The corporate’s title is nearly synonymous with tax preparation.
Why it made the checklist: H&R Block’s tax-preparation tool may give TurboTax a run for its cash. And whilst TurboTax does be offering TurboTax Reside will have to you select to show your taxes over to a pro, H&R Block has tax professionals to be had at any level within the procedure. And in contrast to TurboTax, you’ll be able to talk over with an H&R Block workplace to get that assist. H&R Block tool additionally supplies remarkable ease-of-use. Just by snapping a photograph of your W-2 bureaucracy out of your cellular software, you’ll be able to add them to the tool and the gadget will extract the important knowledge. This can be a main timesaver, particularly in case you held more than one jobs. The provider additionally will give you the facility to shift from one plan point to any other. That comes with the entirety from the loose version for the most simple returns, proper as much as the self-employed model designed in particular for small companies and impartial contractors.
What holds it again: You ceaselessly can’t inform precisely which plan point you wish to have while you get started making ready your taxes. The invention of an sudden tax scenario can require you to business as much as a higher-priced plan.
H&R Block Pricing Plans:
- Loose on-line: $0 for federal and state
- Deluxe on-line: $22.49 plus $36.99 according to state
- Premier: $37.49, plus $36.99 according to state
- Self-employed: $59.99, plus $36.99 according to state
Just like TurboTax, H&R Block tool is probably not your best option for anyone with a easy go back and on the lookout for the lowest-priced provider.
3. TaxAct – Best possible Value Level for Difficult Returns
TaxAct is a worthy competitor to each TurboTax and H&R Block. It doesn’t have fairly the capability of the ones two headliners, neither is it as widely recognized. However it may possibly accommodate returns with all levels of problem, and usually at a lower price than what you’re going to pay for the Giant Two.
Why it made the checklist: TaxAct gives an accuracy ensure of $100,000. This is, it’ll reimburse you for as much as $100,000 for fines or different losses you maintain on account of a mistake in your returns led to by means of TaxAct. They’ll even refund the cost you paid for the tool for a similar mistake(s). You’ve gotta love an organization that places its cash the place its mouth is. We will have to additionally divulge that each TurboTax and H&R Block, in addition to different tax tool techniques, additionally be offering compensation for mistakes which might be obviously at fault. They simply don’t put an outstanding buck determine on it. It’s value repeating that TaxAct usually prices not up to TurboTax and H&R Block for similar plan ranges. From our standpoint, that’s the one maximum compelling function.
What holds it again: Whilst TaxAct is a top-level tax tool plan, it does fall quite in need of TurboTax and H&R Block. Its major merit is a lower cost, however that comes at a value of much less are living human help than the opposite two supply.
TaxAct Pricing Plans:
- Loose: $0 for federal and state
- Deluxe: $23.96 plus $39.95 according to state
- Premier: $31.96, plus $39.95 according to state
- Self-employed: $59.96, plus $49.95 according to state
In case you do have a sophisticated tax scenario, it could be higher to spend just a little bit extra and pass with both TurboTax or H&R Block. The extent of direct help each and every gives approaches that of getting a CPA get ready your go back.
4. E-file – Best possible for First Time DIY
E-file doesn’t have as many options and gear because the tax tool plans above, which in reality makes it a just right starter program in case you’re taking a look to make use of tool to organize your go back for the primary time. As well as, the tool is quite priced.
Why it made the checklist: The Top rate Plus plan covers all deductions and credit, trade revenue, and itemized deductions, for simply $34.49 (plus $21 for submitting your state go back). That is a lot less than the cost of top rate tax tool variations equipped by means of maximum different competition. We additionally like the truth that they rate simply $21 for submitting your state tax go back, without reference to the plan point. That is properly under the $29.99 to $39.99 often charged by means of different techniques.
What holds it again: Except you might have an very simple tax scenario, you’ll nearly indisputably want to enroll in the Top rate Plus plan. As an example, underneath the mid-level Deluxe Plus plan, your revenue can not exceed $100,000. The tool additionally appears to be gentle on funding revenue lodging. Buyer reinforce could also be much less beneficiant than it’s with different techniques.
E-file Pricing Plans:
- Loose: $0 for federal and state
- Deluxe Plus: $19.49 plus $21 according to state
- Premier Plus: $34.49, plus $21 according to state
Like a large number of tax tool techniques, E-file will usually paintings higher for many who have more practical tax scenarios. If yours is extra difficult, you’ll be higher served by means of biting the bullet and paying extra for a higher-priced tool.
5. FreeTaxUSA – Best possible Just about Loose Device
FreeTaxUSA is “loose”. They provide 3 other plans, Loose, Deluxe, and Self-employed, and all are nearly loose. Deluxe does have a small price, and you’re going to pay simply $12.95 for a state go back on all 3 plan ranges.
Why it made the checklist: We simply cited the fee issue, with all 3 plans being introduced just about without spending a dime. That being the case, it’s also possible to use the Deluxe plan, which provides are living chat and precedence reinforce to the provider. The tool makes use of the similar question-and-answer layout as different tax-preparation tool, making it simple to make use of. And prefer different tool, in addition they ensure the accuracy of the overall product. If there are any mistakes due to the preparation by means of the tool, the corporate pays hobby and consequences charged by means of the IRS.
What holds it again: The tool doesn’t have the blank, user-friendly drift that different choices in this checklist supply. And in contrast to a lot of its competition, this tool supplies handiest audit help and now not direct illustration sooner than the IRS. Additionally they lend a hand you in coping with state tax government. FreeTaxUSA gives two other variations, however even the Deluxe model doesn’t reinforce all tax scenarios. As an example, it doesn’t accommodate international employment revenue, family worker taxes, or taxes for youngsters with greater than $2,000 in funding revenue. As well as, customer support is proscribed – essentially to electronic mail.
FreeTaxUSA Pricing Plans:
- Loose Version: $0 for federal, plus $12.95 according to state
- Deluxe Version (comes with are living chat and precedence reinforce): $6.99 plus $12.95 according to state
- Self-employed Version (comprises freelancers, contractors, and sole proprietors): $0 for federal, plus $12.95 according to state
- Prior 12 months Tax Submitting: $0 for federal, plus $14.99 according to state
Total, FreeTaxUSA is a forged tax preparation tool to make use of, so long as you don’t have one of the crucial tax scenarios described within the earlier paragraph that it doesn’t reinforce. Additionally, in case you consider there’s an opportunity you will be audited, this isn’t the tool to make use of.
6. Liberty Tax
Just like TurboTax and H&R Block, Liberty Tax gives the facility to have your finished go back reviewed by means of a are living tax skilled. On the other hand, the price of that assessment is incorporated for your plan worth. There’s no further price for the provider.
Why it made the checklist: Liberty Tax gives their Double Take a look at Ensure. Just like H&R Block, Liberty Tax has an intensive community of tax-preparation places of work around the nation. When you entire making ready your go back on-line, you’ll be able to carry it to a Liberty Tax workplace and feature it reviewed by means of a are living tax preparer sooner than submitting. This can be a main merit for somebody who has both a sophisticated tax go back or prefers the peace of mind of getting their self-prepared go back reviewed by means of a suite of skilled eyes. Pricewise, Liberty Tax is more or less in the course of the variability. They provide the facility to start out making ready your go back without spending a dime, then offering steering as to which plan you will have to choose in keeping with your explicit tax instances.
What holds it again: Liberty Tax has restricted import capacity. Whilst it’ll import W-2 knowledge, different documentation, like funding revenue experiences, will also be extra problematic. In case you input your W-2 knowledge manually, it received’t mechanically calculate your Social Safety tax. You’ll want to input that knowledge immediately out of your W-2. That’s now not a big factor, but it surely does upload an additional step to the enter procedure. Because the tool is a little more bulky than lots of the competition, it could excellent be utilized by those that have a protracted historical past of making ready their very own returns, and are aware of how the overall go back will have to glance. In case you don’t have compatibility that description, you’ll be higher served by means of making an attempt any other provider.
That’s triple loose as in loose in your federal go back, loose in your state go back, and loose to dossier each. That provides TaxSlayer a big merit over different tax-preparation tool services and products which might be loose for federal preparation and submitting, however rate a price for state returns.
Why it made the checklist: The triple-free function of this tool promises it a spot on our checklist. On the other hand, that’s true handiest of the Merely Loose plan model. In all, TaxSlayer gives 5 other plans at other worth ranges. However even the Vintage Plan, which can accommodate maximum taxpayers, is modestly priced at simply $17, plus $29 for state returns. However for an extra $20, you’ll be able to choose the Top rate Plan, which comes with further assist from a tax professional. They’ll even throw in enrolled brokers and IRS qualified mavens to lend a hand you in an IRS audit for as much as 3 years after the IRS accepts your e-file. However one of the crucial options we love excellent about TaxSlayer is their Army plan. It lets in active-duty army group of workers to dossier their federal returns without spending a dime. There’s nonetheless the $29 price for state returns, however the plan comprises all tax scenarios or even supplies IRS inquiry help.
What holds it again: Although the corporate pitches its loose tax preparation tool, it’s to be had just for the most simple of returns. When you have any headaches, you’ll want to use a paid model. Customer support is somewhat of a subject matter right here too. It might take as much as 48 hours to obtain electronic mail responses on your questions since telephone reinforce isn’t to be had. That may be a significant factor on April 14. In case you choose a provider with are living preparation help, believe opting for a distinct tool.
8. Credit score Karma Tax
Credit score Karma Tax is excellent referred to as a loose credit score rating supplier. However they provide many different services and products, together with their tax-preparation tool. And it’s loose as in f-r-e-e. That implies no top rate techniques and no upsells.
Why it made the checklist: With Credit score Karma Tax, loose doesn’t imply deficient high quality. It supplies lots of the services and products introduced by means of paid tool plans. As an example, you’ll be able to add your earlier 12 months’s tax go back from different tool, like TurboTax, H&R Block, and TaxAct. The tool may also supply a last assessment of your go back, and flag any sections which might be both incomplete or short of revision. The provider even comes with an non-compulsory audit protection from a 3rd celebration. There, you’ll be able to get assist with audit-related questions, in addition to get are living illustration sooner than the IRS or state tax government. You’ll be able to even get a voucher code that may make the audit protection loose. In the meantime, Credit score Karma Tax supplies a make it possible for you’ll get the utmost refund, or they’ll refund the adaptation plus $100.
What holds it again: There’s somewhat of a catch relating to the loose tax preparation tool. To profit from the be offering, you’ll want to enroll in the Credit score Karma Tax credit score rating provider. However since that’s loose as properly, there’s no charge there both. And in case you don’t have already got a loose credit score rating provider, right here’s your probability to get one of the vital known resources within the business. As it’s possible you’ll be expecting, an absolutely loose provider received’t accommodate all tax scenarios. When you have any problems past the peculiar, you’ll nearly indisputably have to make use of any other tax-preparation tool.
9. Jackson Hewitt
In case you’re on the lookout for extra than simply tax preparation – like the way to decrease your taxes one day – Jackson Hewitt is the tool you’re on the lookout for. It’s any other tool that’s additionally a part of a sequence of tax-preparation places of work around the nation. They’ve nearly 6,000 places, together with part in Walmart shops.
Why it made the checklist: Any tax-preparation tool that still comes with tax pros in native places of work merits to be on our checklist. It doesn’t get any further handy than with the ability to drop your go back off at a Walmart location for preparation or assessment, whilst you’re buying groceries. The face-to-face help additionally holds the facility to get a greater care for on the way to cut back your taxes one day. The provider gives simple step by step preparation, limitless on-line reinforce – together with real-time get admission to to customer support – in addition to the facility to obtain your W-2 for computerized knowledge switch. Additionally, in case you’re a salary earner, have not more than $100,000 in taxable revenue, and take the usual deduction, you’ll be able to dossier your go back without spending a dime. They do have paid plans at a modest charge for extra difficult returns.
What holds it again: You’ll want to use the Premier plan, at $49.99, plus $36.99 according to state returns filed, even though you might have not unusual scenarios. Those come with revenue over $100,000, itemized deductions, credit and deductions, self-employment, and condo belongings. We received’t say this tool is the most effective, however it’ll serve the desires of maximum taxpayers, and at a modest worth. The one reservation is that you could need to have a look at one of the crucial true loose services and products in case your go back is even somewhat difficult.
10. eSmart Tax
Although eSmart Tax isn’t one of the crucial better-known tax-preparation tool techniques – actually, it’s more than likely close to the ground relating to recognizability – it’s in reality a part of Liberty Tax. For this reason, you don’t have to fret that you just haven’t heard of it. And as it’s a part of that well-established tax-preparation group, it additionally gives are living reinforce via eSmart Tax’s on-line interface. And its plans are to be had for approximately part what it might charge for a similar plan with Liberty Tax.
Why it made the checklist: The modest charge of this tool when mixed with the provision of are living reinforce makes a powerful case for together with eSmart Tax in this checklist. However in addition they be offering loose tax preparation for the most simple returns (even though they do rate $29.99 for state tax returns). And you’ll be able to get are living reinforce even with the loose model.
What holds it again: As a lower-cost tool, eSmart Tax isn’t fairly as tough as a lot of its competition. As properly, are living reinforce is obtainable by means of electronic mail and are living chat, as there’s no telephone reinforce to be had. You may need to believe an alternate in case you’re on the lookout for the most effective tax-preparation tool. As well as, if you’re feeling the will for telephone reinforce, H&R Block and TurboTax are indisputably higher alternatives.
If Spanish is your most popular language, as it’s for tens of millions of American citizens, ezTaxReturn could also be the best choice. This tax tool is to be had in Spanish.
Why it made the checklist: The Spanish language availability indisputably qualifies this tax tool to be at the checklist. But it surely’s additionally a very good selection if you wish to have loose or low cost preparation. You’ll be able to dossier a easy go back loose, and even though it’s just a little bit difficult, they provide a federal/state mixture enabling you to dossier each returns for simply $39.95. For $39.95, you’ll be able to upload audit protection coverage on your plan. You’ll be able to additionally acquire amended go back insurance coverage for an extra $9.95.
What holds it again: There’s one glitch with this tool, and it’s that the loose model is handiest to be had in case you qualify for the earned revenue tax credit score (EITC). Differently, you’ll want to acquire the top rate model. And even though they supply safe go back garage for 3 years without spending a dime, they do have a price of $19.95 to offer a broadcast replica of your go back by means of top notch mail. And sadly, not like different tool in this checklist, they do rate $19.95 for an amended go back. Many competition be offering this provider without spending a dime. Additionally, the provider does now not be offering state tax returns in about part the states within the nation. This tool is designed essentially for low-income filers, and basically those that qualify for the EITC at that. You’ll be higher served with a distinct tool in case your scenario is other.
12. Group Tax
Group Tax is a tax debt reduction provider that still supplies tax-preparation help. They use IRS tax data to account in your revenue and bills, then analyze your go back for mistakes.
Why it made the checklist: Tens of millions of other people have IRS money owed, and their tax returns would possibly require particular dealing with because of this. When you have an present tax debt, or you are expecting to have one while you dossier your go back, Group Tax could also be your go-to selection. They provide a group of advisors and advocates that will help you care for your debt scenario. You’ll entire a questionnaire, and the go back will probably be willing by means of an in-house tax skilled, who may even function an influence of lawyer in your go back in coping with the IRS.
What holds it again: Group Tax isn’t tax preparation tool. As an alternative, it gives enrolled brokers and CPAs to offer steering within the preparation of your go back. You’ll be turning your go back over to an organization that makes a speciality of tax preparation for the ones with tax money owed. In case you don’t have a tax debt or a minimum of one you’ll be able to’t arrange, you’ll be higher served by means of the use of one of the crucial different tool plans in this checklist.
1040.com gives one plan, with a unmarried flat price. It doesn’t subject what your tax scenario is, you’ll pay the similar worth in your go back
Why it made the checklist: 1040.com fees $25 for any form of go back, regardless of how a lot you earn or what the supply. You’ll be able to get ready each federal and state returns as a part of that worth, which contains electronic mail and are living chat reinforce get admission to. You’ll be able to even join the provider and use it without spending a dime. You handiest need to pay in case you’re glad together with your go back, and are in a position to ship it to the IRS. You’ll be able to even pay the cost from your refund, however that may require an extra $24.95. And you’ll be able to acquire the audit coverage package deal for an extra charge of $29.95.
What holds it again: The tool isn’t the very best to make use of, and it doesn’t paintings particularly properly for extra difficult returns, equivalent to those that are self-employed or personal condo belongings. 1040.com will paintings excellent for the ones with fairly difficult returns. In case you’re self-employed, have condo revenue, or have every other headaches, glance into any other tool in this checklist.
OLT.com is a loose tax-preparation tool, that still supplies customer support and audit reinforce for an extra price.
Why it made the checklist: On the subject of any loose tax-preparation tool merits to be incorporated in this checklist. However one that still gives low cost audit reinforce has a bonus that different loose tool techniques don’t. Any other merit is that you’ll be able to dossier a loose federal go back even though your tax scenario is slightly difficult.
What holds it again: OLT.com isn’t as widely recognized or as properly really helpful as the opposite tax-preparation tool in this checklist. It’s a relative unknown, in large part as it isn’t as user-friendly as different tool. Although the provider is loose for federal returns, we strongly counsel the use of different merchandise in this checklist in case your go back is even just a little bit difficult.
15. DIY Tax
DIY Tax supplies festival for Credit score Karma by means of providing actually loose tax preparation tool.
Why it made the checklist: “Loose” is a compelling explanation why to incorporate any tax preparation tool in this checklist.
What holds it again: There isn’t a lot knowledge to be had about this provider. Even the corporate web site is skinny on knowledge. The provider is so loose that they don’t even be offering add-on services and products, like audit protection. We’re skeptical that we don’t see an revenue fashion connected to the provider. As an example, different services and products be offering a loose model handiest on the most simple returns. However they earn their income at the extra difficult returns. And whilst Credit score Karma is a loose provider, it calls for signing up for his or her credit score rating tracking provider, which generates advert income for the corporate. No income leaves us involved the provider received’t be round too lengthy – or it should now not be loose. DIY Tax is ranked #15 as a result of we consider you will have to believe any of the former 14 alternatives sooner than settling in this one.
What You Wish to Know About Your Tax On-line Preparation Choices
Although we’ve equipped this checklist of the finest tax tool techniques, or even indicated which each and every supplier is excellent for, it’s hardly ever true that DIY tax preparation is true for everybody. That’s true even with tax-preparation tool.
Who will tax tool paintings excellent for?
- The ones with easy or slightly easy tax scenarios, who don’t need to pay skilled taxpayers masses of greenbacks to do the process
- Taxpayers with standard tax scenarios, equivalent to a unmarried trade, one or two condo houses, or peculiar funding actions
- The ones with some common working out of submitting tax returns, instead of the ones with the most simple tax scenarios
- Any person who’s been the use of tax-preparation tool up to now. It’s all the time more uncomplicated to head with what you realize than the beginning one thing totally new
None of that is to suggest that you wish to have a deep wisdom of revenue tax preparation to make use of DIY tax tool. Maximum will stroll you throughout the procedure methodically, the use of a question-and-answer layout, the place you merely want to enter the specified knowledge. The tool will do all of the organizing and calculating for you, or even mean you can know the place there could also be mistakes or miscalculations. Although the loose variations are indisputably sexy, notice they’ll handiest observe to these with the most simple tax scenarios. Usually, they’ll handiest be to be had when you’ve got a complete revenue underneath $100,000, earn revenue strictly from W-2s, pursuits, and dividends, and don’t want to itemize your deductions.
When to Pay a Skilled
There are scenarios while you would possibly want to pass with a paid tax preparer:
- You probably have an overly difficult go back, equivalent to more than one trade pursuits, a number of condo houses, important global transactions, and different complexities
- While you’ve been audited up to now, and/or there’s an affordable chance it’ll occur one day
- In case your go back is difficult, and also you lack both the time or the incentive to do your personal taxes
Even with tax-preparation tool, difficult tax scenarios will also be fairly concerned and time-consuming. You’ll want to measure the price of DIY tax prep as opposed to different makes use of of your time (like incomes extra money).
How We Selected the Best possible Tax Device Systems
Our variety procedure used to be in keeping with the next components:
- The power of a provider to deal with probably the most difficult returns
- Ease of use
- Availability of shopper reinforce
- Availability of assist, assessment, or finishing touch of a go back by means of a tax skilled
- Rankings and evaluations by means of third-party resources
Up to we use the above standards in an try to be goal, your personal analysis of any tool in this checklist will probably be in keeping with which is possibly to paintings excellent for your specific tax scenario. As an example, whilst we really feel TurboTax is the finest tax tool program general, chances are you’ll choose a lower-priced tool with extra restricted functions. Our analysis is based totally totally on the advantages we consider will attraction to the most important selection of attainable customers.
Ultimate Ideas at the Best possible Tax Device Systems
Tax tool techniques have come far in simply the previous few years. Now not handiest can they accommodate many extra tax scenarios, however some have turn into extremely user-friendly. Despite the fact that you recognize not anything in any respect about making ready taxes, a just right tax tool program can information you via all of the procedure, and assist you to create a professionally willing go back in an overly brief period of time. If you wish to have to paintings with a qualified tax preparer, now not handiest will you pay a miles larger price, however you’ll even have to attend at the preparer to have your go back finished. By way of going the DIY course with tax-preparation tool, you’ll be able to get ready your taxes by yourself agenda. And that can result in a sooner refund. Despite the fact that you’ve by no means willing your personal tax returns up to now, you will have to give this sort of tool techniques a take a look at. Except your tax scenario is especially difficult, you’ll temporarily include the benefit, velocity, and cost-effectiveness of those techniques.